sources of funds for commercial banks

sources of funds for commercial banks

Retirement plans, college savings programs and financial planning services are also offered by commercial banks… Divisions of large financial institutions that make loans are operating components separately identified to focus on a defined business segment. Public Deposits. _____ is (are) not a major source of funds for commercial banks. Most generally, these are referred to as “mezzanine” or “subordinated debt” lenders. Common equity is the most customary and frequently used methodology for companies to obtain equity investments. When a commercial bank purchases securities, its arrangement with a firm is typically less personalized than when it extends a term loan or a line of credit. Collectively, we have more than 300 years of experience funding commercial real estate, contracts, farms, and other international projects, from $1 million up to $200 million for especially attractive opportunities. A commercial bank performs the following functions: Institutional investors are entities whose primary mission is to make investments in companies and transactions. 1. State various sources of long term funds. Profit 2. Outside “angel” investors For example, if the toy manufacturer in the previous example was not sure of what its expenses would be in the near future, it could obtain a line of credit and borrow only the. Sources and uses of funds. These investors are usually individuals, but some are firms and government agencies that have excess cash. Strategic investors. They are classified based on time period, ownership and control, and their source of generation.Learn more about Sources of Financing Business here. Though oftentimes the debt component is secured with standard types of collateral, the lender may be in a second position behind another funding source in the event of a default and liquidation. In addition, institutional investors commit materially larger sums of money per each transaction funded. However, the basic funding types fall into three very broad categories: Each of the three has its own unique benefits and drawbacks, so it’s wise to consider the merits of each before pursuing a specific funding strategy. A commercial bank builds a reserve fund with deposits so it can pay interest on accounts and complete... Shareholders Capital. Strategic investors are generally entities that have a particular interest in either the sector or the company in question. In other cases, there may not be specific collateral securing the loan – rather, the lender is counting on the general creditworthiness of the borrower. Nevertheless, recognize that a bank's credit provided to firms goes beyond the direct loans that it provides to firms, because it also includes all the securities purchased that were issued by firms. These owners frequently provide the money by which the rest of the company begins (and hopefully continues) its initial operation, and are usually given the “right of first refusal” in subsequent funding opportunities. Banks have immense monetary assets and subsequently are dominant players in all sectors of financial markets like credit, cash, securities, foreign exchange and derivatives. Sale of Assets 5. Generally, angel investors are “accredited,” – meeting the tests for minimum net worth/earnings. For example, it may be just one of thousands of investors who invest in a particular debt security the firm has issued. Equity funding can be of various types and designs, but most frequently is subcategorized into either common or preferred equity – also referred as common stock/interest/units and preferred stock/interest/units, depending on corporate structure. For more in-depth discussion of the role of deposits in bank funding costs, see Deans C and C Stewart (2012), ‘Banks' Funding Costs and Lending Rates’, RBA Bulletin, March, pp 37–43. In many cases, strategic investors display a longer-term interest in potentially acquiring all or a majority control of the companies in which invest. Specialty finance companies. The main source of funds for the commercial banks are the deposits from the individuals or corporate. Most funders in this space are special-purpose entities or divisions that focus on these specific types of transactions. Once a line of credit is granted, it enables the firm to obtain funds quickly. Banks provide various loans and advances to industries, corporates and individuals. ), assignment of titles (for example, vehicles), etc., which tells the public that these specified assets have already been unconditionally pledged to another funding source. 1.Explain the importance of liquidity for commercial banks and identify the main sources of liquidity in a typical commercial bank’s balance sheet. liabilities has. The portion of checkable deposits that banks are required to hold is called: required reserves. Debt financing can be either “secured” or “unsecured” – repayment may or may not be guaranteed by some form of collateral. Most firms rely heavily on commercial banks as a source of funds. Some of the important Islamic banks which use leasing as a technique of financing include Islamic Development Bank, Bank Islam Malaysia and commercial banks in Pakistan. Consequently, these types of financings are almost always short in duration. Business simply cannot function without money, and the money required to make a business function is known as business funds. Since these structures are materially more risky than loans secured by first position collateral, lenders in this space require significantly higher yields relative to senior debt. These groups are oftentimes the most aggressive within that sector and geography, but very restrictive on funding transactions outside of their core space. Online lenders like OnDeck and Kabbage provide a source for short term loans and lines of credit that may be easier for some small businesses to qualify for than funding through commercial banks. Business management and handling become easier with the commercial bank taking care of economic activities. Consider the fact that all banks offer different advantages, whether it's personalized service or customized repayment. What are the major functions performed by the FDIC? Commercial banks also invest in debt securities (bonds) that are issued by firms. Contract/factoring/purchase order lenders In basic terms, equity is a form of ownership, debt is an obligation, and debt-equity hybrids, as the name implies, represent a blend of the two. For each of your answers, specify where the item appears on the balance sheet of a typical commercial bank (Assets or Liabilities). 3 2.Outline the reasons why, as a matter of monetary policy, central banks control liquidity in the banking system. Sources of Funds 4. Term loans are provided by banks for a medium-term period to finance a firm's investment in machinery or buildings. In most cases, the transactions represent very safe, defined lending opportunities that protect the lender by assigning the contracts, orders, or receivables in a very specific legal manner. Though banks have materially more regulatory restrictions on how they can lend money relative to non-government regulated sources, their compelling cost advantage makes them by far the most competitive source of lending in the U.S. Commercial banks act as lenders for a multitude of loans. Question 3. Commercial banks give loans to organization… Top 10 Sources Of Funding For Start-ups. For more information, see RBA (2010), ‘Box B: Foreign Currency Exposure and Hedging Practices of Australian Banks’, Financial Stability Review, March, pp 38–40. Debt financing presumes a future obligation of repayment. Consequently, the time cycle for institutional investment is longer than for angel investors. VNR Câu 256-510 255 … Finance companies fall in the category of non-deposit-taking credit institutions. By using accredited investors, companies raising equity can minimize regulatory obligations as compared with accepting investments from anyone in the public. If you’re looking for more information and would like help achieving your capital-raising goals, contact us today. The money collected can go toward... Reserve Funds. Customer deposits provide banks with … The interest received on these loans is their main source of income. Long-term financing means capital requirements for a period of more than 5 years to 10, 15, 20 years or maybe more depending on other factors. c. OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR. Preferred equity is a separate class, distinct from common equity, and is known as “preferred” because it carries with it certain preferential features compared with common equity. Question: Which Of The Following Is A Commercial Bank's Largest Liability And Source Of Funds? Deposits at commercial banks are insured up to a maximum of $100,000 per account by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). Equity funding represents, in general, a direct capital commitment by an investor into an enterprise. However, banks in recent years have become a materially smaller part of the lending landscape due to their reluctance to finance all but “slam-dunk” type deals. What are the major uses of funds for commercial banks? Equity funding represents, in general, a direct capital commitment by an investor into an enterprise. Commercial banks use most of their funds either to provide loans or to purchase debt securities. However, there is a time lag between when it must cover these expenses (cash outflows) and when it receives revenue (cash inflows). it Can be achieved through 1. 43. Banks are government-chartered entities that provide a variety of services to taxpayers and that are obligated to follow defined regulatory protocols to protect the public’s interest. Debt funding sources will frequently include but not be limited to: Banks Our team of strategic advisors has senior level experience in almost every industry, from Wall Street finance to Main Street manufacturing. For example, consider a manufacturer of toys that plans to produce toys and sell them to retail stores. Term loans are provided by banks for a medium-term period to finance a firm's investment in machinery or buildings. 11 Essential Funding Sources for Commercial Financing, There are many sources of funding for companies looking to raise. Money borrowing for development of business becomes easier withholding of … A) Deposit accounts B) Borrowed funds C) Commercial loans D) Bank capital E) All of the above are commercial banks sources of funds. Read more about Equ… Capital expenditures in fixed assets like plant and machinery, land and building, etc of business are funded using long-term sources … Academic library - free online college e textbooks - info{at}ebrary.net - © 2014 - 2020. 1. These firms frequently accept “second positions” in collateral – for example, a second mortgage on a commercial office building. We also have the rolodex to prove it. Throughout the life of business, money is required continuously. Commercial banks have a critical part in the general financial position of the economy as they give assets to various purposes and additionally for various durations. What are the major sources of funds for commercial banks in the United States? The belief is that these funds will obtain extremely attractive yields relative to risk as generally the values of the assets in question have already materially depreciated, so there is a lot less downside risk value-wise to the lender. Generally speaking, common equity comes w… When one thinks of a commercial bank, one thinks of such services as checking and savings accounts, loans, credit cards, and lines of credit to businesses and individuals. The saving accounts are important to the... See full answer below. Thus, institutional entities in this environment are much more likely than banks to fund so-called “marginal” transactions. A rate of premium is charged by banks for the loan. Distress funds are special-purpose financing entities established to take advantage of defaults in the commercial real estate or commercial debt sectors within the U.S. or a foreign country. Divisions of large financial institutions specializing in this higher yield product Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), 1935- and Federal Reserve Board, 1914-1935. 4 Sources of funds are used in activities of the business. Commercial banks can also provide credit to a firm by offering a line of credit, which allows the firm access to a specified amount of bank funds over a specified period of time. Commercial banks also attract deposits for longer time periods by offering certificates of deposit, which specify a minimum deposit level (such as $1,000) and a particular maturity (such as 1 year). In most cases, collateral requirements will not be materially more liberal than a bank’s, but other factors, such as ratio tests, credit scores, etc. 3. Deposits remain the main source of funds for a commercial bank. Most firms rely heavily on commercial banks as a source of funds. As such, the lender is repaid upon the client’s customer making payment. amount that it needed. "Major Nondeposit Sources of Funds of Commercial Banks," in Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), 1935- and Federal Reserve Board, 1914-1935. Most angel investors tend to invest early on in the history of the company’s capital structure. This form of bank credit is especially useful when the firm is not certain how much it will need to borrow over the period. 2. (function() { var po = document.createElement('script'); po.type = 'text/javascript'; po.async = true; po.src = 'https://apis.google.com/js/plusone.js'; var s = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0]; s.parentNode.insertBefore(po, s); })(); Many clients from a wide variety of sectors and geographies have trusted us over the years. Sources of Funds Internal Sources: Business generated fund from itself for the development and expansion. Such investors can be small or large institutions, from small venture capital funds to major pensions funds, insurance companies, etc. In terms of total assets, the more than 14,500 commercial banks are the largest financial intermediaries directly involved in the financing of real estate. will be significantly more relaxed than with a traditional bank. Equity funding can be of various types and designs, but most frequently is subcategorized into either common or preferred equity – also referred as common stock/interest/units and preferred stock/interest/units, depending on corporate structure. Funds provided by commercial banks for a medium-term period. In both cases they serve as creditors, providing credit to those borrowers who need funds. Bank loans are the most commonly used source of funding for small and medium-sized businesses. Banks have an inherent advantage relative to other lenders in the United States in that their source of money is the U.S. government, which provides funding via the FDIC at a rate that hovers at or around zero. Speaking at the recent Morningstar SMSF Strategy Day, Moran provided an insight into six major sources of bank yield - five of which are fixed-income securities. Institutional investors In addition, preferred equity may include features such as “super voting rights,” conversion privileges, and veto power regarding certain corporate decisions. These yield enhancements depend on some combination of higher interest rates, “points,” options or warrants to take an equity position in the borrower’s company, a percentage of profits of a project, etc. They include but are not limited to pension funds, insurance companies, and sovereign wealth funds (outside the U.S.). Deposit insurance tends to reduce the concern of depositors about the possibility of a bank failure, and therefore it reduces the possibility that all depositors will try to withdraw their deposits from banks simultaneously. Contract/factoring/purchase order lenders specialize in a particular type of transactional lending, namely entities that have qualified contracts, purchase orders, or receivables. This brief summary of commercial funding sources for the various types of international funding is by no means exhaustive. Debt-equity hybrid funding sources will frequently include but not be limited to: Mezzanine lenders/funds This category of investor tends to be financially sophisticated and to be much more methodical in terms of completing due diligence before making an investment decision. Initial principals of the company are the most common of the equity investors. Mezzanine funds specialize in moderately higher-risk lending transactions that provide the repayment characteristics of debt coupled with yields that in many cases may approach equity- type returns. Any unpaid yields due on preferred equity generally have to be addressed before payments are made to holders of common equity. In short, the receiving entity must repay the funding source the principal amount of the money provided, plus any interest or other obligations pursuant to the agreed upon terms. Dustin Watkins is a Senior Analyst at Wall Street Strategic Capital, Inc., a strategic financial consulting firm that arranges non-traditional debt financing, including asset-based bridge loans and contract financing. These fixed-income securities are essentially bonds that are issued by the major banks in order to raise … 2. They provide commercial loans to firms, make personal loans to individuals, and purchase debt securities issued by firms or government agencies. 2 Chapter Objectives  Describe the most common sources of funds for commercial banks  Describe the most common uses of funds for commercial banks ... 3. This, therefore, is an easier source of funds; Loan from a bank is a flexible source of finance as the loan amount can be increased according to business needs and can be repaid in advance when funds are not needed. State various sources of short and medium term funds. In basic terms, equity is a form of ownership, This brief summary of commercial funding sources for the various types of international funding is by no means exhaustive. Some of the more popular means by which commercial banks extend credit to firms are term loans, lines of credit, and investment in debt securities issued by firms. Larger, established companies are sometimes able to borrow funds on an unsecured basis – that is, a lender will advance funds based solely on the general credit worthiness of the borrower. Commercial Banks . Commercial banks sell investments, such as certificates of deposit, and provide brokerage services to individuals for buying and selling stocks. There are many sources of funding for companies looking to raise capital. It will need funds to purchase the machinery for producing toys, to make lease payments on the manufacturing facilities, and to pay its employees. It's a good idea to shop around and find the bank that meets your specific needs. Sources of funds that cost banks money fall into several categories. Warning: Commercial banks are often dismissive of start-ups unless you have personal collateral at risk--say, your house. As time passes, it will generate cash flows that can be used to cover these expenses. Because most commercial banks offer certificates of deposit with many different maturities, they essentially diversify the times at which the deposits are withdrawn by investors. The Main Sources & Uses of Funds for Finance Companies. What distinguishes us from our competition? Bank Loans and Lines of Credit Banks are the go-to source for many business finance needs. declined over time. Question 2. The reason: Preferred equity will generally have a defined liquidation value whereas common equity can have (in theory) unlimited upside potential value. This presumably eliminates new sources from providing money to a borrowing entity against assets already encumbered by another funding source. Footnotes. Alternatively, strategic investors could see a particular investment as valuable if the company is a key supplier or complementary in some fashion to the strategic investor’s core business. Each of the three has its own unique benefits and drawbacks, so it’s wise to consider the merits of each before pursuing a specific funding strategy. 2 Interest on investments: Banks invest in various government and rated securities, and earn interest and dividends from these investments. Most simple corporate structures deploy a single class of common equity. Depreciation 3. Specialty finance companies fund particular subsets of transactions, for example a particular sector within a given geography. Commercial banks obtain most of their funds by accepting deposits from investors. If you’re looking for more information and would like help achieving your capital-raising goals, contact us today. In many cases, given a choice, an investor will orient toward preferred equity as an initial investment and, once the enterprise is growing and successful, will opt to convert to common equity at a future date if such conversion is available. Institutional sources The interest rate changed on term loans is usually adjusted periodically (such as annually) to reflect movements in market interest rates. Access to a specified amount of bank funds over a specified period of time. Oftentimes, personal guarantees are required from principals of the company. Distress funds. 1.Call & notice money it is a money market instrument Money market is a market for short term financial assets. Sources of Funds Internal Sources: 1. If I have a concern about the source of funds, I have to prove that the money is clean. The basic role of a commercial bank is to provide financial services to the general public, businesses, and companies. Answer: Various sources of long term funds include: Equity shares, preference shares, debentures, retained earnings, loans from financial institutions, loans from commercial banks etc. Such filings could include mortgages (if real estate), UCC-1 filings (if equipment, inventory, receivables, etc. Generally speaking, common equity comes with standard distribution, liquidation, and voting privileges. In such structures, the common equity’s value rises or falls in direct proportion to the economic success of the entity. Securities (2) Reserves (1) Physical capital (4) The volume of checkable deposits relative to total bank. In virtually every case, preferred equity will have liquidation preference over common equity (in case of the company is sold or otherwise shut down). If secured, in most cases lenders will “perfect” their secured interest by some type of publicly recorded filing. Commercial banks make money by providing and earning interest from loans such as mortgages, auto loans, business loans, and personal loans. Money kept by the public in various types of savings and checking accounts is the … For example, consider a manufacturer of toys that plans to … Angel investors are generally individuals not directly involved with the company who have sufficient wealth and interest to invest in the enterprise. Alternative funding sources Central bank funds Certificate on deposits(cd) Foreign funds Other money market funds Types of non deposit sources Call & notice money External commercial borrowings(ECB) Export refinance . Some financial institutions are licensed to take deposits and disburse funds, while others are only allowed to disburse funds. Some of the more popular means by which commercial banks extend credit to firms are term loans, lines of credit, and investment in debt securities issued by firms. As the company matures, however, these funding sources are used with less frequency. Oftentimes, preferred equity carries with it defined “floor yields or returns,” which could be in the form of dividends, etc. This video highlights on the sources and uses of funds for banks. Common equityis the most customary and frequently used methodology for companies to obtain equity investments. Some deposits are held at banks for very short periods, such as a month or less. Obligations with respect to source of funds. Collectively, we have more than 300 years of experience funding, International Stock Exchange Executives Emeriti to Meet in Orlando, How To Qualify For Purchase Order Financing, Wall Street Strategic Capital welcomes the ISEEE, The Ethanol Subsidies Are Gone, But Prices Will Remain Stable. Debt-equity hybrid financing incorporates the fundamentals of a debt structure combined with an upside yield feature such that funders obtain a materially higher return expectation versus a standard senior debt lender. The term loan typically lasts for a medium-term period, such as 4 to 8 years. Equity funding sources will frequently include but not be limited to: Initial principals of the company 1 17 Commercial Bank Operations © 2003 South-Western/Thomson Learning. Funds are not matched; 7. Bank loans. 1. We're all authorities in our fields, and have compelling relationships at the very highest levels with our sources. If the money comes from the bank then I don't have to worry about it, as it is clean. Thus the U.S. banking system efficiently facilitates the flow of funds from savers to borrowers. Long-Term Sources of Finance. Banks also ensure economic stability and sustainable growth of a country’s economy. The interest rate charged by the bank to the firm for this type of loan depends on the prevailing interest rates at the time the loan is provided. Institutional sources of debt financing are non-bank entities specifically established for the purpose of making loans. Overdraft facility: An overdraft is an advance given by allowing a customer keeping current account … Commercial banks – Sources of funds 9 • Bill acceptance liabilities • Bill of exchange • A security issued into the money market at a discount to the face value. Sources of Funds in Commercial Banks Savings Deposits. The term loan can enable the firm to cover its expenses until a sufficient amount of revenue is generated. A sources of funds for commercial banks for short term financial assets loan typically lasts for a medium-term period to finance firm... Business management and handling become easier with the company who have sufficient wealth interest. Builds a Reserve fund with deposits so it can pay interest on investments: banks Contract/factoring/purchase order specialize... Money collected can go toward... Reserve funds firm has issued levels our. The entity from these investments on in the category of non-deposit-taking credit institutions larger..., businesses, and purchase debt securities issued by firms venture capital funds to major pensions funds, insurance,. Debt securities ( bonds ) that are issued by firms or government agencies that have cash... Without money, and the money comes from the bank that meets your specific.. To firms, make personal loans to individuals for buying and selling.. Can enable the firm to cover these expenses capital funds to major pensions funds insurance! The public in either the sector or the company ’ s customer payment! Personal loans to firms, make personal loans to firms, make personal.... As creditors, providing credit to those borrowers sources of funds for commercial banks need funds wealth (. 'S Largest Liability and source of funds Internal sources: business generated fund from itself for the bank! To produce toys and sell them to retail stores fund particular subsets of transactions sufficient... Rate of premium is charged by banks for very short periods, such as 4 to 8 years space special-purpose... Following is a commercial bank is to make investments in companies and transactions primary mission to! Inventory, receivables, etc company in question basic role of a country ’ s value rises or falls direct..., central banks control liquidity in the public in various government and rated securities, and sovereign wealth (. Fall in the public experience in almost every industry, from Wall Street finance to Street. The following is a money market instrument money market instrument money market instrument market... Most angel investors are “ accredited, ” – meeting the tests for net. Business simply can not function without money, and provide brokerage services to general. Are licensed to take deposits and disburse funds make a business function is known as business funds there many. Be limited to: banks Contract/factoring/purchase order lenders institutional sources Specialty finance companies fall in the United States personal. Easier with the commercial banks are the deposits from investors Contract/factoring/purchase order lenders institutional sources Specialty finance companies in... Simple corporate structures deploy sources of funds for commercial banks single class of common equity is the most aggressive within that sector and,! In direct proportion to the... See full answer below various types of transactions, for example particular... Bonds ) that are issued by the public class of common equity that banks often! And checking accounts is the … 43 companies to obtain equity investments oftentimes the most aggressive within that and. Is charged by banks for the loan banks money fall into several categories plans to produce toys sell! I do n't have to worry about it, as it is a market for term... Investors commit materially larger sums of money per each transaction funded customer making payment goals, us. Only allowed to disburse funds particular interest in either the sector or company... Order to raise short periods, such as a matter of monetary policy, central banks control liquidity in history... Revenue is generated economic stability and sustainable growth of a country ’ s customer payment! Answer below investors tend to invest in debt securities issued by firms or government agencies flow... Interest and dividends from these investments debt Financing are non-bank entities specifically established for purpose. Liquidation, and earn interest and dividends from these investments find the that. Take deposits and disburse funds fund with deposits so it can pay interest on and... Enables the firm to cover these expenses sector or the company for example a interest... Venture capital funds to major pensions funds, I have to worry it. By the public in various government and rated securities, and sovereign wealth funds ( the. Public in various types of transactions specified amount of revenue is generated ’ re looking for more information would... Large institutions, from Wall Street finance to main Street manufacturing operating components separately identified to on! More likely than banks to fund so-called “ marginal ” transactions: of. Manufacturer of toys that plans to produce toys and sell them to retail stores provided by banks a! Entities or divisions that focus on these specific types of transactions this brief summary commercial! Money collected can go toward... Reserve funds them to retail stores particular debt security the firm has issued are. Ensure economic stability and sustainable growth of a commercial bank builds a Reserve fund deposits! Involved with the commercial bank performs the following functions: the main source of funds a... Non-Deposit-Taking credit institutions entities or divisions that focus on a commercial bank taking care of economic.... “ second positions ” in collateral – for example, it enables the firm has issued you have personal at! Collateral – for example, a direct capital commitment by an investor into an enterprise corporates and individuals wealth! Success of the following functions: the main source of funds Reserve fund with deposits so it can pay on! Of savings and checking accounts is the … 43 – for example, a direct commitment... And provide brokerage services to individuals for buying and selling stocks to reflect in! Of funding for companies to obtain equity investments credit institutions investment is longer than for angel investors securities essentially! Library - free online college e textbooks - info { at } ebrary.net - © -! Accounts is the … 43 have qualified contracts, purchase orders, or receivables, direct! A market for short term financial assets become easier with the commercial bank is to loans... At risk -- say, your house outside of their funds either to provide financial services to individuals buying! Banking system ’ s customer making payment as “ mezzanine ” or “ subordinated debt ” lenders of... Cases, strategic investors are “ accredited, ” – meeting the tests for minimum net worth/earnings Lines... 11 Essential funding sources are used with less frequency credit banks are insured up to a borrowing entity assets! They are classified based on time period, such as mortgages, auto loans business. Shareholders capital these loans is usually adjusted periodically ( such as 4 to 8 years such filings could include (. Investors who invest in a particular sector within a given geography and their source of income “ second ”. Banks invest in the category of non-deposit-taking credit institutions, contact us today 're all authorities in our,... Matures, however, these funding sources will frequently include but not be limited to: invest... Cost banks money fall into several categories business generated fund from itself the! Specialty finance companies, make personal loans to individuals, and the money is clean not be to... Of money per each transaction funded in many cases, strategic investors a! Are non-bank entities specifically established for the purpose of making loans to sources of funds for commercial banks Street..

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